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Professor Norman Clark

Norman Clark

Profile summary

Professional biography

Norman Clark retired as Professor of Innovation Systems and Development at the Open University in December 2013. He is now Emeritus Professor and Fellow of the Innogen Institute (based at the Open and Edinburgh Universities).  Previously he was Vice-Chancellor of Kabarak University, Nakuru, Kenya, and before that Professor of Environmental Studies and Director of the Graduate School of Environmental Studies at the University of Strathclyde where he is now an Emeritus Professor.

He is a development economist specialising in science, technology and innovation policy issues with particular relevance to Third World problems, a field in which he has published extensively. He has lived and worked in many countries with particular concentration on Kenya, Nigeria and India. Previously he held academic posts at the Universities of Glasgow and Sussex. While at Sussex he acted as the Founding Director of Graduate Studies at the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) where he worked for some 15 years. He has also acted as Founding Director of the Technology Planning and Development Unit, University of Ife, Nigeria; Visiting Professor, Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Director of the Capacity Development Programme at the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), Nairobi, Kenya. He is now a member of the ACTS Governing Council.

In addition to normal academic activities he has had some 40 years’ experience as an adviser and consultant to governments, international agencies and NGOs including the World Bank, UNCTAD, IDRC, DFID, ITDG, CGIAR, UN-Habitat, UNU and UNDP. He acted also as an adviser to the UK House of Commons Select Committee on Overseas Development on ODA’s [now DFID’s] Special Units (i.e. TPI, COPR, LRDC etc.).

He was a member of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Task Force Team 10 on Science, Technology and Innovation and has acted as an adviser to the NEPAD secretariat in Pretoria, to ILRI in Nairobi and to the World Bank. Over the past 6 years he has been closely involved with the DFID Research into Use (RIU) Programme, firstly as the leader of the assessment and strategy phases of the Sierra Leone country programme and latterly as senior adviser to the RIU management team.

Research interests

DFID (2007-2010)
Energy for Development Research Programme Consortium (with ACTS, Nairobi)

FAO (2007-2008)
Building the capacity of IGAD member states to respond and adapt to drought and livestock disease emergencies

John D and Catherine McArthur Foundation (2004-2007)
Agricultural Biotechnology and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Analysis of the Political Economy of Risk Management and Policy-Making

DFID (1999-2002)
Building Capacity for Sustainable Biotechnology Development in Ghana

DFID/NRI (1998-2005)
Optimising Institutional Arrangements for Demand Driven Post-Harvest Research in India.


[Book Review] Meera Subramanian: A river runs again - India’s natural world in crisis, from the barren cliffs of Rajasthan to the farmlands of Karnataka (2016-04)
Clark, Norman
Food Security, 8(2) (pp. 463-465)

It’s not STI: It’s ITS – the Role of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) in Africa’s Development Strategy (2016-03)
Clark, Norman and Frost, Andy
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development, 15(1) (pp. 3-13)

Putting research into use: A market failure approach (2012-04-01)
Clark, Norman; Frost, Andy; Maudlin, Ian; Seward, Paul; Wainwright, Henry and Ward, Andrew
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development, 10, Article 1(3) (pp. 185-200)

What do complex adaptive systems look like and what are the implications for innovation policy? (2010-04)
Hall, Andy and Clark, Norman
Journal of International Development, 22(3) (pp. 308-324)

Below the radar: a fresh approach to innovation and development policy (2009-01)
Clark, Norman and Chataway, Joanna
International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development, 8(3) (pp. 171-175)

Below the radar: What does innovation in emerging economies have to offer other low-income economies? (2009)
Kaplinsky, Raphael; Chataway, Jo; Hanlin, Rebecca; Clark, Norman; Kale, Dinar; Muraguri, Lois; Papaioannou, Theo; Robbins, Peter and Wamae, Watu
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development, 8(3) (pp. 177-197)

Institutional change and innovation capacity: contrasting experiences of promoting small scale irrigation technology in South Asia (2007-09-17)
Hall, Andy; Clark, Norman and Naik, Guru
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development, 6(2) (pp. 77-101)

Livestock R&D in East and Southern Africa: An innovation systems perspective with special reference to the International Livestock Research Institute (2007-05)
Clark, Norman; Smith, James and Hirvonen, Maija
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development, 6(1) (pp. 9-24)

Research as capacity building: the case of an NGO facilitated post-harvest innovation system for the Himalayan Hills (2003-09)
Clark, Norman; Hall, Andy; Sulaiman, Rasheed and Naik, Guru
World Development, 31(11) (pp. 1845-1863)

Biotechnology and development: threats and promises for the 21st century (2002-11)
Clark, Norman; Stokes, Kathryn and Mugabe, John
Futures, 34(9-10) (pp. 785-806)

Innovation systems, institutional change and the new knowledge market: implications for third world agricultural development (2002-06)
Clark, Norman
Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 11(4-5) (pp. 353-368)

Some New Approaches to Evolutionary Economics (1988-06)
Clark, Norman
Journal of Economic Issues, 22(2) (pp. 511-531)

Technology Development Assistance for Agriculture; Putting research into use in low income countries (2013-04-18)
Clark, Norman; Frost, Andy; Maudlin, Ian and Ward, Andrew
Routledge Explorations in Development Studies
ISBN : 978-0-415-82697-6 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : Abingdon

Biotechnology Policy in Africa (2007-01)
Clark, Norman; Mugabe, John and Smith, James
ISBN : 9966411488 | Publisher : African Centre for Technology Studies | Published : Nairobi

Pharmaceuticals in Kenya: The Evolution of Technological Capabilities (2016)
Simonetti, Roberto; Clark, Norman and Wamae, Watu
In: Mackintosh, Maureen; Banda, Geoffrey; Tibandebage, Paula and Wamae, Watu eds. Making Medicines in Africa: The Political Economy of Industrializing for Local Health. International Political Economy Series (pp. 25-44)
ISBN : 978-1-137-54647-0 | Publisher : Springer

Putting Research into Use (RIU): Technology Development for the Poor Farmer in Low Income countries (2013-05)
Clark, Norman G.
In: Daniel, Oscar ed. The World Financial Review (pp. 40-47)
Publisher : The World Financial Review Publishing | Published : London

Innovation Systems and Agricultural Development in Africa : A Capacity Building Needs Assessment (2005-09-29)
Clark, Norman
In : International Livestock Research Institute (29 Sep 2005)

Below the radar: What does innovation in the asian driver economies have to offer other low income economies (2009)
Clark, Norman; Chataway, Joanna; Hanlin, Rebecca; Kale, Dinar; Kaplinsky, Raphael; Muraguri, Lois; Papaioannou, Theo; Robbins, Peter and Wamae, Watu
Economic and Social Research Council

Research into use Sierra Leone country assessment report (2007-03-05)
Clark, Norman; Mansaray, Patrick; Sheriff, Sima and Suale, David
Department for International Development

Andhra Pradesh Netherlands Biotechnology Programme for dyland agriulture: Mid-term evaluation of second phase (2005-10)
Khush, Gurdev S.; Nagarajan, S; Tuli, Rakesh and Clark, Norman

Science policy and agricultural research in Africa: a capacity building needs assessment (2005-01)
Clark, Norman

The economic content of science and technology policy analysis (2004-06)
Clark, Norman
Xavier Management Institute

A review of the programme and organisation of the African Technology Policy Studies (ATPS) network (2001-12)
Mugabe, John and Clark, Norman

What can biotechnology do for Africa? And how can the associated risks and uncertainty be managed? (2001-03)
Clark, Norman
African Technology Policy Studies Network, Nairobi, Kenya.

Cyprus Technology Strategy (1988)
Clark, N.; Edquist, C.; Kaplinsky, R. and Pimentel, D.
UNDP/OPE and Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, UK.